Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s Disease Currently, There is no cure for Parkinson’s Disease However, science has shown us that the deterioration can in some case be slown down. Parkinson’s disease affects the nerve cells in the brain that produce dopamine. Parkinson’s symptoms include muscle rigidity, tremors and changes in speech and gait. Currently there is no treatmentto cure Parkinson’s however there are good indications in tirals that show promising results ability of MSC being able to slow the process down and enhance the quality of life.

    Stage 1

    Mild Symptoms such as tremors along one side of the body may be presented at this stage. Often the symptoms are mild enough not to interfere with daily life, but slight changes in walking, posture, or facial expressions may be notices.

     

    Stage 2

    Both sides of the body may be affected by slightly worsened tremors or rigidity. Issues with posture and walking may become quite noticeable and everyday activities may be harder to achieve but patients will still be able to do things for themselves.

     

    Stage 3

    As motor symptoms become worse, patients may begin to experience loss of balance leading to falls and movement can become very slow. Although many patients can still live independently they may have difficulty in everyday activities such as eating or dressing. 

      Stage 4

      In this later stage, Symptoms are now extremely limiting. Many patients can still stand without assistance but movement is greatly impaired. Most will need help with everyday activities and will not be able to look after themselves.

        Stage 5

        This is the most advanced stage of the disease and most patients will experience difficulty in walking and standing, often requiring a wheelchairs. Assistance will be needed in all areas of daily life as motor skills are seriously impaired. In addition, people with advanced Parkinson’s disease may also begin to suffer hallucinations

        Possible Benefits of MSC in the fight against Parkinson’s

        Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting the basal nuclei, causing motor and cognitive disorders. Bearing in mind that standard treatments are ineffective in delaying the disease progression, alternative treatments capable of eliminating symptoms and reversing the clinical condition have been sought. Possible alternative treatments include cell therapy, especially with the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC).

        MSC are adult stem cells which have demonstrated remarkable therapeutic power due to their differentiation competence and in the migratory capacity and the production of bioactive molecules. This review aims to analyze the main studies involving MSC and PD in more than a decade of studies, addressing their different methodologies and common characteristics, as well as suggesting perspectives on the application of MSC in PD.

        The Results of MSC therapy in animal models and human clinical trials suggest that such cellular therapy may slow the progression of PD and promote neuro-regeneration.

        Multiple studies from the laboratory of Phil Hyu Lee (Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea) have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a potentially exciting treatment option for the neurodegenerative disorder Parkinson’s Disease (PD). Their new STEM CELLS study now evaluates a new means by which MSCs may protect against early PD development the protection against axonal transport defects leading to enhanced neural cell survival the rationale for this new article “stems” from studies into the causes of PD, which have identified the a-synuclein (SNCA) synaptic protein and the microtubule (MT) associated protein (MAP) tau as common risk factors [2-4]. Axonal defects lead to the abnormal accumulation of a-synuclein, which destabilizes microtubules (MT) via tau phosphorylation, so causing the nigral dopaminergic cell loss associated with PD.

         

        The authors employed two model system; human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) overexpressing a-Synu clein and C57BL/6 mice injected with a-synuclein in the substantia nigra (SN). Encouragingly, coculture or systemic injection of human MSCs reversed the unwanted a-synuclein-mediated disruptions to MT networks and trafficking and this promoted neuronal protection and survival. 

        In-depth analysis indicated that MSCs secreted the  eukaryotic elongation factor 1A-2 (EEF1 A2) protein, which stabilized MT assembly, so enhancing the movement of cell substituents between the neural cell body and the axons. The increased levels of MT-dependent trafficking subsequently permitted the clearance/degradation of unwanted of a-synuclein aggregates via the fusion of autophagosomes with late endosomes/lysosomes. The reduction in a-synuclein then reduced calcium/calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of the tau protein, Which in turn enhanced the survival of dopaminergic neurons. In condclusion, this intriguing new study suggests that pharmacological manipulation of MT assembly or axonal transport may represent a means to treat a-synuclein related discorders, such as PD.

        Telling you that MSC is the cure for PD would be stretching the truth, however most current research shows that MSC can and may have an impact on the slowing down and enhacing of current PD medications currently used in the flight against MSC. The first step is to have a specialist or Doctor familiar and experienced with PD run a series of tests ruling out other possible causes for your symptoms. At Zen clinic we can help you with this process so you can have a clear understanding of the options and therapies that could assist you.

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